Sometimes a parcel of commercial real estate suffers such title problems that it becomes so unwieldy that a title insurance is unwilling to insure over. In such situations, the extraordinary powers of a Bankruptcy Court may be the only solutions available. The program for which this paper was written dealt with the questions of when Bankruptcy applies, and what extraordinary tools it provides, for such title problems.
I. What This Portion of the Program Does Not Cover: individual or consumer bankruptcies, residential properties or foreclosures, details of the foreclosure process, guaranties other than IDOT's themselves, or personal or intangible property.
II. Types of Problems Created by the Bankruptcy Laws. 4 Things a Bankruptcy Court Can Do to Mess-Up a Foreclosure of, or Title to, a Parcel of Commercial Real Estate:
A. Automatic stay (11 U.S.C. §362)
1. The statute is broad enough to apply to perfection and enforcement actions
§ 362. Automatic stay
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, a petition filed under section 301, 302, or 303 of this title [11 USCS § 301, 302, or 303], or an application filed under section 5(a)(3) of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 [15 USCS § 78eee(a)(3)], operates as a stay, applicable to all entities, of--
(1) the commencement or continuation, including the issuance or employment of process, of a judicial, administrative, or other action or proceeding against the debtor that was or could have been commenced before the commencement of the case under this title, or to recover a claim against the debtor that arose before the commencement of the case under this title;
(2) the enforcement, against the debtor or against property of the estate, of a judgment obtained before the commencement of the case under this title;
(3) any act to obtain possession of property of the estate or of property from the estate or to exercise control over property of the estate;
(4) any act to create, perfect, or enforce any lien against property of the estate;
(5) any act to create, perfect, or enforce against property of the debtor any lien to the extent that such lien secures a claim that arose before the commencement of the case under this title;
(6) any act to collect, assess, or recover a claim against the debtor that arose before the commencement of the case under this title;
(7) the setoff of any debt owing to the debtor that arose before the commencement of the case under this title against any claim against the debtor; and . . .
2. A lender can request relief from the automatic stay
(a) More protection, for a lender, if the subject property is "single asset real estate"
§ 362. Automatic stay
(d) On request of a party in interest and after notice and a hearing, the court shall grant relief from the stay provided under subsection (a) of this section, such as by terminating, annulling, modifying, or conditioning such stay--
(1) for cause, including the lack of adequate protection of an interest in property of such party in interest;
(2) with respect to a stay of an act against property under subsection (a) of this section, if--
(A) the debtor does not have an equity in such property; and
(B) such property is not necessary to an effective reorganization;
(3) with respect to a stay of an act against single asset real estate under subsection (a), by a creditor whose claim is secured by an interest in such real estate, unless, not later than the date that is 90 days after the entry of the order for relief (or such later date as the court may determine for cause by order entered within that 90-day period) or 30 days after the court determines that the debtor is subject to this paragraph, whichever is later--
(A) the debtor has filed a plan of reorganization that has a reasonable possibility of being confirmed within a reasonable time; or
(B) the debtor has commenced monthly payments that--
(i) may, in the debtor's sole discretion, notwithstanding section 363(c)(2) [11 USCS § 363(c)(2)], be made from rents or other income generated before, on, or after the date of the commencement of the case by or from the property to each creditor whose claim is secured by such real estate (other than a claim secured by a judgment lien or by an unmatured statutory lien); and
(ii) are in an amount equal to interest at the then applicable nondefault contract rate of interest on the value of the creditor's interest in the real estate; or
(4) with respect to a stay of an act against real property under subsection (a), by a creditor whose claim is secured by an interest in such real property, if the court finds that the filing of the petition was part of a scheme to delay, hinder, or defraud creditors that involved either--
(A) transfer of all or part ownership of, or other interest in, such real property without the consent of the secured creditor or court approval; or
(B) multiple bankruptcy filings affecting such real property. . . .
(b) Advantages and disadvantages of getting a lift stay and going on to state foreclosure, as opposed to selling the distressed property in the Bankruptcy proceeding?
(i) Saving state and local transfer and recordation taxes under the Bankruptcy Code.
§ 1146. Special tax provisions
(a) The issuance, transfer, or exchange of a security, or the making or delivery of an instrument of transfer under a plan confirmed under section 1129 of this title [11 USCS § 1129], may not be taxed under any law imposing a stamp tax or similar tax.
However, see Florida Department of Revenue v. Piccadilly Cafeterias, Inc., 128 S.Ct. 2326, 2008 U.S. LEXIS 5025 (2008) (a transfer made under 11 U.S.C. §363 vs. one made pursuant to a plan of reorganization theretofore confirmed under 11 U.S.C. §1129).
(ii) More control over the procedures (for example: a 30-day limit) vs. the risks of suffering a cram-down
(iii) Court blessing where otherwise not available
B. Voidable Preferences (11 U.S.C. §547)
1. 90 days before the filing of the Bankruptcy Petition; 1 year for transfers for insiders
2. Exception for certain purchase money security interests perfected within 30 days
(b) Except as provided in subsections (c) and (i) of this section, the trustee may avoid any transfer of an interest of the debtor in property--
(1) to or for the benefit of a creditor;
(2) for or on account of an antecedent debt owed by the debtor before such transfer was made;
(3) made while the debtor was insolvent;
(A) on or within 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition; or
(B) between ninety days and one year before the date of the filing of the petition, if such creditor at the time of such transfer was an insider; and
(5) that enables such creditor to receive more than such creditor would receive if--
(A) the case were a case under chapter 7 of this title [11 USCS §§ 701 et seq.];
(B) the transfer had not been made; and
(C) such creditor received payment of such debt to the extent provided by the provisions of this title [11 USCS §§ 101 et seq.].
(c) The trustee may not avoid under this section a transfer--
(1) to the extent that such transfer was--
(A) intended by the debtor and the creditor to or for whose benefit such transfer was made to be a contemporaneous exchange for new value given to the debtor; and
(B) in fact a substantially contemporaneous exchange;
(2) to the extent that such transfer was in payment of a debt incurred by the debtor in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the debtor and the transferee, and such transfer was--
(A) made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the debtor and the transferee; or
(B) made according to ordinary business terms;
(3) that creates a security interest in property acquired by the debtor--
(A) to the extent such security interest secures new value that was--
(i) given at or after the signing of a security agreement that contains a description of such property as collateral;
(ii) given by or on behalf of the secured party under such agreement;
(iii) given to enable the debtor to acquire such property; and
(iv) in fact used by the debtor to acquire such property; and
(B) that is perfected on or before 30 days after the debtor receives possession of such property;
(4) to or for the benefit of a creditor, to the extent that, after such transfer, such creditor gave new value to or for the benefit of the debtor--
(A) not secured by an otherwise unavoidable security interest; and
(B) on account of which new value the debtor did not make an otherwise unavoidable transfer to or for the benefit of such creditor; . . .
C. Fraudulent Transfers and Obligations (11 U.S.C. §548)
1. 2 years before the filing of the Bankruptcy Petition; 10 years for transfers to certain self-settled trusts or similar asset-protection devices
(a) (1) The trustee may avoid any transfer (including any transfer to or for the benefit of an insider under an employment contract) of an interest of the debtor in property, or any obligation (including any obligation to or for the benefit of an insider under an employment contract) incurred by the debtor, that was made or incurred on or within 2 years before the date of the filing of the petition, if the debtor voluntarily or involuntarily--
(A) made such transfer or incurred such obligation with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud any entity to which the debtor was or became, on or after the date that such transfer was made or such obligation was incurred, indebted; or
(B) (i) received less than a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for such transfer or obligation; and
(ii) (I) was insolvent on the date that such transfer was made or such obligation was incurred, or became insolvent as a result of such transfer or obligation;
(II) was engaged in business or a transaction, or was about to engage in business or a transaction, for which any property remaining with the debtor was an unreasonably small capital;
(III) intended to incur, or believed that the debtor would incur, debts that would be beyond the debtor's ability to pay as such debts matured; or
(IV) made such transfer to or for the benefit of an insider, or incurred such obligation to or for the benefit of an insider, under an employment contract and not in the ordinary course of business.
(2) A transfer of a charitable contribution to a qualified religious or charitable entity or organization shall not be considered to be a transfer covered under paragraph (1)(B) in any case in which--
(A) the amount of that contribution does not exceed 15 percent of the gross annual income of the debtor for the year in which the transfer of the contribution is made; or
(B) the contribution made by a debtor exceeded the percentage amount of gross annual income specified in subparagraph (A), if the transfer was consistent with the practices of the debtor in making charitable contributions.
(b) The trustee of a partnership debtor may avoid any transfer of an interest of the debtor in property, or any obligation incurred by the debtor, that was made or incurred on or within 2 years before the date of the filing of the petition, to a general partner in the debtor, if the debtor was insolvent on the date such transfer was made or such obligation was incurred, or became insolvent as a result of such transfer or obligation.
(c) Except to the extent that a transfer or obligation voidable under this section is voidable under section 544, 545, or 547 of this title [11 USCS § 544, 545, or 547], a transferee or obligee of such a transfer or obligation that takes for value and in good faith has a lien on or may retain any interest transferred or may enforce any obligation incurred, as the case may be, to the extent that such transferee or obligee gave value to the debtor in exchange for such transfer or obligation.
D. Executory Contracts and Ipso Facto Provisions (11 U.S.C. §365)
1. Promise not to file for Bankruptcy or to permit an Involuntary Bankruptcy
III. Can Title Insurance Solve the Voidable Preference or Fraudulent Transfer Problems?
A. ALTA Loan Policy 2006 covers prior transfers and certain recording issues with respect to the Insured transfer:
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13. The invalidity, unenforceability, lack of priority, or avoidance of the lien of the Insured Mortgage upon the Title
(a) resulting from the avoidance in whole or in part, or from a court order providing an alternative remedy, of any transfer of all or any part of the title to or any interest in the Land occurring prior to the transaction creating the lien of the Insured Mortgage because that prior transfer constituted a fraudulent or preferential transfer under federal bankruptcy, state insolvency, or similar creditors' rights laws; or
(b) because the Insured Mortgage constitutes a preferential transfer under federal bankruptcy, state insolvency, or similar creditors' rights laws by reason of the failure of its recording in the Public Records
(i) to be timely, or
(ii) to impart notice of its existence to a purchaser for value or to a judgment or lien creditor.
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EXCLUSIONS FROM COVERAGE
6. Any claim, by reason of the operation of federal bankruptcy, state insolvency, or similar creditors' rights laws, that the transaction creating the lien of the Insured Mortgage, is
(a) a fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer, or
(b) a preferential transfer for any reason not stated in Covered Risk 13(b) of this policy.
B. Former ALTA Endorsement 21-06 (Creditors' Rights) was designed to cover the Insured transfer, but was withdrawn, as an ALTA form, on 2/3/2010.
C. Now, if an Insured has an old policy with a Creditors' Rights endorsement, the title insurance company seeks to take that away, even from the old policy, as a condition to issuing a current assignment, modification or other endorsement.
D. Why should a lender buy an endorsement, or a new title policy, if it or its subsidiary buys-in the property at the foreclosure sale, especially if that new policy or endorsement will cause it to lose its existing Creditors' Rights endorsement?
1. The old lender's policy stays in effect so long as the lender, or its subsidiary has an interest in the subject property. ALTA Loan Policy 2006 provides, in relevant part:
1. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms when used in this policy mean:
(e) "Insured": The Insured named in Schedule A.
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(i) The term "Insured" also includes
(A) the owner of the Indebtedness and each successor in ownership of the Indebtedness, whether the owner or successor owns the Indebtedness for its own account or as a trustee or other fiduciary, except a successor who is an obligor under the provisions of Section 12(c) of these Conditions;
(B) the person or Entity who has "control" of the "transferable record," if the Indebtedness is evidenced by a "transferable record," as these terms are defined by applicable electronic transactions law;
(C) successors to an Insured by dissolution, merger, consolidation, distribution, or reorganization;
(D) successors to an Insured by its conversion to another kind of Entity;
(E) a grantee of an Insured under a deed delivered without payment of actual valuable consideration conveying the Title
(1) if the stock, shares, memberships, or other equity interests of the grantee are wholly-owned by the named Insured,
(2) if the grantee wholly owns the named Insured, or
(3) if the grantee is wholly-owned by an affiliated Entity of the named Insured, provided the affiliated Entity and the named Insured are both wholly-owned by the same person or Entity;
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2. CONTINUATION OF INSURANCE
The coverage of this policy shall continue in force as of Date of Policy in favor of an Insured after acquisition of the Title by an Insured or after conveyance by an Insured, but only so long as the Insured retains an estate or interest in the Land, or holds an obligation secured by a purchase money Mortgage given by a purchaser from the Insured, or only so long as the Insured shall have liability by reason of warranties in any transfer or conveyance of the Title. This policy shall not continue in force in favor of any purchaser from the Insured of either (i) an estate or interest in the Land, or (ii) an obligation secured by a purchase money Mortgage given to the Insured.
2. Need insurance over a Court Order in Maryland vs. D.C. (D.C. has no judicial oversight over commercial foreclosures.), to be sure that the foreclosure was properly performed.
3. Insured bring-to-date, as distinguished from just a title report.
4. The dollar limits of the old policy may be low in relation to today's value.
5. Whether, with the passage of time, the old Creditors' Rights endorsement still has any value?